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‘All you can do is get out of its way’

South Florida is perpetually in the news as a poster child of the perils of sea level rise — and the lack of action on the distant, but inevitable problem. Just this week, a study came out showing the oceans are rising at the fastest rate in 28 centuries.

Local expert John Englander, an oceanographer, consultant, and president of the International Sea Level Institute, has made it his mission with his book High Tide on Main Street to make people wake up to the perils of sea level rise.

The book explains the scientific evidence of sea level rise, what coastal cities like Miami ought to expect, and how cities far away coastlines might be impacted.  

We spoke to Englander about what can be done to prepare for the rising seas.


Why did you write
High Tide on Main Street?

Well, I’ve been concerned with the environment my whole life, but for the past 15 to 20 years, I’ve been trying to figure out climate change, both as a scientist and for myself. I was always interested in how to communicate science to the public. When I was in Greenland, suddenly it was very clear to me — as the ocean heats up, the ice on the planet melts, and that raises the sea level and moves the shoreline up.

It’s a very clear picture of climate change, and I thought that if I could explain that, it might clarify some of the confusion surrounding climate change. The book was published three years ago, and since then I’ve been speaking and trying to explain that to different audiences.

What are some short-term and long-term solutions Miami and Miami Beach should consider?

We need to do two things: slow global warming and plan for sea level rise, because the planet is already warmer and that can’t be reversed quickly. We need to do everything possible to slow the warming, but we also need to adapt to the rising seas.

There are a few things you can do to adapt to sea level rise, but they are limited. If the ocean is going to be three feet higher, all you can do is get out of its way — that means either elevating, relocating, or putting in pumps for short-term flooding.

Places can flood because of a combination of the cycle of the full moon, high tide, storm surges, rainfall, or sea level rise. Unlike some of the other factors that contribute to flooding, sea level rise doesn’t ever go down, it keeps rising for centuries. So when the sea level is higher, the next tide is going to be higher.

While other factors that contribute to flooding are temporary, sea level rise is permanent.  

What the City of Miami Beach is doing is prepare for the temporary flooding that happens is a good short-term measure — and it is going to make things better for a decade or two or longer.

Miami Beach is a little bit ahead of Miami, because they’ve been putting in pumps and raising streets. That’s really all they can do in the short term.

The City of Miami recently appointed its own sea level rise committee and a sustainability director, that is a step forward. Another thing the city can do is elevate buildings. For example, the Pérez Art Museum Miami was elevated so that when there is temporary flooding from high tides, the building is not affected.

In the long term, we’re hoping for some new technology that can address permanent flooding. Perhaps someday we’ll be able to inject grout into the porous rock, or maybe lift the city up and put a membrane over it — but those solutions are just not realistic. The county is doing the things it can right now, but in the long-term there is a much bigger problem.

What can individuals do to adapt?

Elevate your homes and install pumps if you are in a low-lying area. Sea level rise comes from the melting of the ice sheets, and that’s going to continue because the oceans are already warmer. People have to understand that slowing global warming and climate change comes from slowing greenhouse emissions, but that won’t stop sea level rise. The oceans are already 1.5 degrees warmer, and the ice sheets are already melting.

Covers-HTOMS-RSLCCC tight
Courtesy of www.johnenglander.net

If the long term impacts of sea level rise are inevitable, why is there a development and real estate boom right now?

In condos, which is what most of those new buildings are, the developers are only there for the time it takes to design, permit, and sell the building. The people who buy those condos and apartment buildings are on the hook for much longer.

I can’t make a blanket statement about when the concern for sea level rise will affect real estate values, but at the moment it doesn’t seem to be a problem. I don’t know when property values will be affected because Miami is a hot area —  people want to move in right now.

Who knows when the public will get concerned about more frequent flooding. That was the point “The siege of Miami,” Elizabeth Kolbert’s recent New Yorker article. There’s also couple of famous articles by Jeff Goodell, like “Goodbye, Miami published in the Rolling Stone, about when property values might be affected.

It could be during the hurricane season when flooding is more frequent. But it’s a psychological issue more than anything, because sea level rise is slow — it just kind of creeps along.

This interview has been condensed and edited for clarity. A previous version incorrectly described a new study on the rate of sea level rise, it has been amended. 

  • Malagodi

    One would think, reading this and virtually every other story about SLR in South Florida, that the most precious things of value at risk here were our beach front mansions; that the only areas of impact were Miami Beach and Key Biscayne; that the greatest sport was the real estate game of musical chairs – who gets left stranded in worthless condos once the mortgage music stops.

    As Elizabeth Kolbert noted in one rare paragraph, South Florida is #2 globally for assets at risk and #4 for population at risk. The hundreds of thousands of people in that population set mostly do not live in beach front mansions with a pool and a get-away yacht. They live in South Dade and West Dade, mostly in areas they were forced to live in because that’s where middle and low priced housing was built. These are the people in the sacrifice zones, where adaptation on a community-wide scale cannot happen. These are the poor, ‘unfortunate’ ones whom Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk says “will have to buy rubber boots” while the wealthy, who chose to buy on the waterfront, are once again subsidized with billions of dollars of infrastructure adaptation contracts.

    Q: What do you value more, people or real estate? A: Real estate. Why? Because it has a dollar sign on it.

    I say fuck that noise. Abandon that mansion and go buy another. Let’s focus on the people who have nowhere to go and no way to get there.

    Stephen Malagodi
    President, 350 South Florida.

    • Roshan

      Hey Malagodi — have you seen this piece in The Atlantic? http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/03/taking-the-high-ground-and-developing-it/472326/?mc_cid=0ad89d69c8&mc_eid=3b26bbb1e0

      Speaks to some of the things you’re talking about, how SLR might be spurring gentrification into higher land and how in a few years the people living there face the threat of climate-induced displacement.

      The New Tropic helped facilitate a Catalyst Miami summit that took a deep dive into this issue, calling together scientists, community activists, and interested community members. One take away from that was even though it’s not a problem immediately, it’s important to engage everyone in the conversations about climate change and what that might mean for their livelihood especially those who are at the highest risk of being displaced.

      Thanks for your comment + critical dialogue. Here’s a piece we’ve done about the summit: https://thenewtropic.com/catalyst-miami-climate-change/

      • Malagodi

        The recent Atlantic article is good, though very incomplete.

        And, yea, I was at the summit. I was the one who challenged the panelists, particularly Commissioner Cava-Levine, to consider a set-aside for relocation assistance from any money that flows through the county for SLR adaptation – so that it doesn’t all go to the contractors for projects defending the high-value property of Miami Dade’s elites.

        But my point is that every story about SLR in South Florida that is predominantly about real estate values and features a photo of luxury waterfront property with a yacht out front (as this one does), completely misses or intentionally ignores the human cost of climate change in South Florida, which will be borne – and is being borne already – disproportionately by poor and working classes.

        If we are going to address the issue of climate justice and not just the economic losses to the mostly wealthy waterfront property owners (which will be offset by federal and local tax-funded adaptation efforts) then it is incumbent of us, as climate change activists and you, as media distributors, to change the narrative focus from property to people.

        • Roshan

          Great to hear you were at the summit, would have been awesome to meet and speak in person! We chose that header photo because it prominently displayed the water juxtaposed against the city — but thanks for pointing out that in doing so it may appear that we are prioritizing luxury waterfront property over other populations, which absolutely isn’t the case. There will be more stories on SLR on The New Tropic, those stories will work towards the goal of humanizing SLR, both in the art we choose and in the content of the piece. Thanks for your comments, they only make us better!

  • Malagodi

    One would think, reading this and virtually every other story about SLR in South Florida, that the most precious things of value at risk here were our beach front mansions; that the only areas of impact were Miami Beach and Key Biscayne; that the greatest sport was the real estate game of musical chairs – who gets left stranded in worthless condos once the mortgage music stops.

    As Elizabeth Kolbert noted in one rare paragraph, South Florida is #2 globally for assets at risk and #4 for population at risk. The hundreds of thousands of people in that population set mostly do not live in beach front mansions with a pool and a get-away yacht. They live in South Dade and West Dade, mostly in areas they were forced to live in because that’s where middle and low priced housing was built. These are the people in the sacrifice zones, where adaptation on a community-wide scale cannot happen. These are the poor, ‘unfortunate’ ones whom Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk says “will have to buy rubber boots” while the wealthy, who chose to buy on the waterfront, are once again subsidized with billions of dollars of infrastructure adaptation contracts.

    Q: What do you value more, people or real estate? A: Real estate. Why? Because it has a dollar sign on it.

    I say fuck that noise. Abandon that mansion and go buy another. Let’s focus on the people who have nowhere to go and no way to get there.

    Stephen Malagodi
    President, 350 South Florida.

    • Roshan

      Hey Malagodi — have you seen this piece in The Atlantic? http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/03/taking-the-high-ground-and-developing-it/472326/?mc_cid=0ad89d69c8&mc_eid=3b26bbb1e0

      Speaks to some of the things you’re talking about, how SLR might be spurring gentrification into higher land and how in a few years the people living there face the threat of climate-induced displacement.

      The New Tropic helped facilitate a Catalyst Miami summit that took a deep dive into this issue, calling together scientists, community activists, and interested community members. One take away from that was even though it’s not a problem immediately, it’s important to engage everyone in the conversations about climate change and what that might mean for their livelihood especially those who are at the highest risk of being displaced.

      Thanks for your comment + critical dialogue. Here’s a piece we’ve done about the summit: https://thenewtropic.com/catalyst-miami-climate-change/

      • Malagodi

        The recent Atlantic article is good, though very incomplete.

        And, yea, I was at the summit. I was the one who challenged the panelists, particularly Commissioner Cava-Levine, to consider a set-aside for relocation assistance from any money that flows through the county for SLR adaptation – so that it doesn’t all go to the contractors for projects defending the high-value property of Miami Dade’s elites.

        But my point is that every story about SLR in South Florida that is predominantly about real estate values and features a photo of luxury waterfront property with a yacht out front (as this one does), completely misses or intentionally ignores the human cost of climate change in South Florida, which will be borne – and is being borne already – disproportionately by poor and working classes.

        If we are going to address the issue of climate justice and not just the economic losses to the mostly wealthy waterfront property owners (which will be offset by federal and local tax-funded adaptation efforts) then it is incumbent of us, as climate change activists and you, as media distributors, to change the narrative focus from property to people.

        • Roshan

          Great to hear you were at the summit, would have been awesome to meet and speak in person! We chose that header photo because it prominently displayed the water juxtaposed against the city — but thanks for pointing out that in doing so it may appear that we are prioritizing luxury waterfront property over other populations, which absolutely isn’t the case. There will be more stories on SLR on The New Tropic, those stories will work towards the goal of humanizing SLR, both in the art we choose and in the content of the piece. Thanks for your comments, they only make us better!

  • Katie Mandes

    1st sentence: 28 CENTURIES, not 28 years..

    • Roshan

      Good catch Katie. I’ve fixed it — appreciate your help and close read.

  • Katie Mandes

    1st sentence: 28 CENTURIES, not 28 years..

    • Roshan

      Good catch Katie. I’ve fixed it — appreciate your help and close read.

  • AK

    How should people who are thinking about relocating to Miami think about the issues, especially if they are considering investing in the city in the long term, both in terms of real estate, as well as becoming part of the community?

    • Roshan

      One takeaway from this interview, I’d say, is that considering SLR should be a priority when developing or investing in properties in Miami. As Englander notes, as an individual you can “elevate your homes and install pumps if you are in a low-lying areas.” In terms of becoming part of the community — it might be worthwhile to understand what policies the county is considering, getting involved in local advocacy groups, and working to communicate to your elected officials what you think is a priority in terms of sea level rise adaptation. Is there anything you’d like to read more about on The New Tropic that might help you in your understanding? What should we be covering?

  • AK

    How should people who are thinking about relocating to Miami think about the issues, especially if they are considering investing in the city in the long term, both in terms of real estate, as well as becoming part of the community?

    • Roshan

      One takeaway from this interview, I’d say, is that considering SLR should be a priority when developing or investing in properties in Miami. As Englander notes, as an individual you can “elevate your homes and install pumps if you are in a low-lying areas.” In terms of becoming part of the community — it might be worthwhile to understand what policies the county is considering, getting involved in local advocacy groups, and working to communicate to your elected officials what you think is a priority in terms of sea level rise adaptation. Is there anything you’d like to read more about on The New Tropic that might help you in your understanding? What should we be covering?